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  • 2022考研英語二試題及答案

    Section I Use of English

    Directions:

    Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

    Harlan Coben believes that if you’re a writer, you’ll find the time; and that if you can’t find the time, then writing isn’t a priority and you’re not a writer. For him, writing is a 1 job–a job like any other. He has 2 it with plumbing, pointing at that a plumber doesn’t wake up and say that he can’t work with pipes today.

    3 , like most writers these days, you’re holiday down a job to pay the bills, it’s not 4 to find the time to write. But it’s not impossible. It requires determination and single-mindedness. 5 that most bestselling authors began writing when they were doing other things to earn a living. And today, even writers who are fairly 6 often have to do other work to 7 their writing income.

    As Harlan Coben has suggested, it’s a 8 of priorities. To make writing a priority, you’ll have to 9 some of your day-to-day activities and some things you really enjoy. Depending on your 10 and your lifestyle, that might mean spending less time watching television or listening to music, though some people can write 11 they listen to music. You might have to 12 the amount of exercise or sport you do. You’ll have to make social media an 13 activity rather than a daily, time-consuming 14 . There’ll probably have to be less socializing with your friends and less time with your family. It’s a 15 learning curve, and it won’t always make you popular.

    There’s just one thing you should try to keep at least some time for, 16 your writing–and that’s reading. Any writer needs to read as much and as widely as they can; it’s the one 17 supporter–something you can’t do without.

    Time is finite. The older you get, the 18 it seems to go. We need to use it as carefully and as 19 as we can. That means prioritising our activities so that we spend most time on the things we really want to do. If you’re a writer, that means 20 writing.

    1. [A] difficult [B] normal [C] steady [D] pleasant

    2. [A] combined [B] compared [C] confused [D] confronted

    3. [A] If [B] Though [C] Once [D] Unless

    4. [A] enough [B] strange [C] wrong [D] easy

    5. [A] Accept [B] Explain [C] Remember [D] Suppose

    6. [A] well-known [B] well-advised [C] well-informed [D] well-chosen

    7. [A] donate [B] generate [C] supplement [D] calculate

    8. [A] cause [B] purpose [C] question [D] condition

    9. [A] highlight [B] sacrifice [C] continue [D] explore

    10. [A] relations [B] interests [C] memories [D] skills

    11. [A] until [B] because [C] while [D] before

    12. [A] put up with [B] make up for [C] hang on to [D] cut down on

    13. [A] intelligent [B] occasional [C] intensive [D] emotional

    14. [A] habit [B] test [C] decision [D] plan

    15. [A] tough [B] gentle [C] rapid [D] funny

    16. [A] in place of [B] in charge of [C] in response to [D] in addition to

    17. [A] indispensable [B] innovative [C] invisible [D] instant

    18. [A] duller [B] harder [C] quieter [D] quicker

    19. [A] peacefully [B] generously [C] productively [D] gratefully

    20 [A] at most [B] in turn [C] on average [D] above all

    Section II Reading Comprehension

    Part A

    Directions:

    Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

    Text 3

    We have all encountered them, in both our personal and professional lives. Think about the times you felt tricked or frustrated by a membership or subscription that had a seamless sign-up process but was later difficult to cancel. Something that should be simple and transparent can be complicated, intentionally or unintentionally, in ways that impair consumer choice. These are examples of dark patterns.

    First coined in 2010 by user experience expert Harry Brignull, “dark patterns" is a catch-all term for practices that manipulate user interfaces to influence the decision-making ability of users. Brignull identifies 12 types of common dark patterns, ranging from misdirection and hidden costs to “roach motel”, where a user experience seems easy and intuitive at the start, but turns difficult when the user tries to get out.

    In a 2019 study of 53,000 product pages and 11,000 websites, researchers found that about one in 10 employs these design practices. Though widely prevalent, the concept of dark patterns is still not well understood. Business and nonproft leaders should be aware of dark patterns and try to avoid the gray areas they engender.

    Where is the line between ethical, persuasive design and dark patterns? Businesses should engage in conversations with IT, compliance, risk, and legal teams to review their privacy policy, and include in the discussion the customer/user experience designers and coders responsible for the company's user interface, as well as the marketers and advertisers responsible for sign-ups, checkout baskets, pricing, and promotions. Any or all these teams can play a role in creating or avoiding “digital deception.”

    Lawmakers and regulators are slowly starting to address the ambiguity around dark patterns, most recently at the state level. In March, the California Attorney General announced the approval of additional regulations under the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) that “ensure that consumers will not be confused or misled when seeking to exercise their data privacy rights.” The regulations aim to ban dark patterns- this means prohibiting companies from using "confusing language or unnecessary steps such as forcing them to click through multiple screens or listen to reasons why they shouldn’t opt out.”

    As more states consider promulgating additional regulations, there is a need for greater accountability from within the business community. Dark patterns also can be addressed on a self-regulatory basis, but only if organizations hold themselves accountable, not just to legal requirements, but also to industry best practices and standard.

    31. It can be learned from the first two paragraphs that dark patterns ______.

    [A] improve user experiences

    [B] leak user information for profit

    [C] undermine users’ decision-making

    [D] remind users of hidden costs

    32. The 2019 study on dark patterns is mentioned to show ______.

    [A] their major flaws

    [B] their complex designs

    [C] their severe damage

    [D] their strong presence

    33. To handle digital deception, businesses should ______.

    [A] listen to customer feedback

    [B] talk with relevant teams

    [C] turn to independent agencies

    [D] rely on professional training

    34. The additional regulations under the CCPA are intended to ______.

    [A] guide users through opt-out processes

    [B] protect consumers from being tricked

    [C] grant companies data privacy rights

    [D] restrict access to problematic content

    35. According to the last paragraph, a key to coping with dark patterns is ______.

    [A] new legal requirements

    [B] businesses' self-discipline

    [C] strict regulatory standards

    [D] consumers' safety awareness

    Section III Translation

    Directions:

    Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

    Although we try our best, sometimes our paintings rarely turn out as originally planned! Changes in the light, the limitations of your palette, and just plain old lack of experience and technique mean that what you start out trying to achieve sometimes doesn’t come to life the way that you expected.

    Although this can be frustrating and disappointing, it turns out that this can actually be good for you! Unexpected results have two benefits: for starters, you pretty quickly learn to deal with disappointment, and in time (often through repeated error) to realise that when one door closes, another opens. You quickly learn to adapt and come up with creative solutions to the problems the painting presents, and this means that thinking outside the box becomes second nature to the painter!

    Creative problem solving skills are incredibly useful in daily life, and mean you’re more likely to be able to quickly come up with a solution when a problem arises.

    Section IV Writing

    Part A

    47. Directions:

    Suppose you are planning a campus food festival. Write an email to the international students in your university to

    1) introduce the food festival, and

    2) invite them to participate.

    You should write about 100 words on the ANSWER SHEET.

    Do not use your own name in the email; use “Li Ming” instead. (10 points)

    Part B

    48. Directions:

    Write an essay based on the chart below. In your writing, you should

    1) interpret the chart, and

    2) give your comments.

    You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)

    【答案】

    1. [B] normal

    2. [B] compared

    3. [A] If

    4. [D] easy

    5. [C] Remember

    6. [A] well-known

    7. [C] supplement

    8. [C] question

    9. [B] sacrifice

    10. [B] interests

    11. [C] while

    12. [D] cut down on

    13. [B] occasional

    14. [A] habit

    15. [A] tough

    16. [D] in addition to

    17. [A] indispensable

    18. [D] quicker

    19. [C] productively

    20. [D] above all

    31. [C] undermine users’ decision-making

    32. [D] their strong presence

    33. [B] talk with relevant teams

    34. [B] protect consumers from being tricked

    35. [B] businesses' self-discipline

    雖然我們盡了最大的努力,但有時我們的畫作最終很少會像原來計劃的那樣!光線的變化、調色板有限的顏色種類以及只是普通的經驗和技術欠缺,都意味著你一開始嘗試要做到的事情,有時并不會以你預期的方式實現。

    雖然這可能會令人沮喪和失望,但事實證明,這實際上可以是對你有好處的!意想不到的結果有兩個好處:首先,你很快就能學會如何處理失望情緒,并最終(通常是通過不斷地犯錯)意識到當一扇門關閉時,另一扇門就會打開。你也很快就能學會適應并想出創造性的解決方案來解決畫作中呈現的問題,這意味著跳出固有思維成為了畫家的第二天性!

    創造性的問題解決技能在日常生活中非常有用,并意味著當問題出現時,你更有可能快速想出解決方案。

    【審題】

    應用文類型:介紹+邀請信,由introduce、invite可判斷。

    收信人:international students

    寫作背景:Suppose you are planning a campus food festival

    內容要點

    1) introduce the food festival, and

    2) invite them to participate

    署名:Li Ming

    【參考范文】

    Dear Friends,

    I am writing this email to you to introduce an upcoming campus food festival and invite you to attend it.

    The relevant details are as follows. For one thing, it will be held in the school gym on September 20. For another, it is advisable for you to know that during the festival, you will enjoy a variety of local food, such as the world-famous Cold Noodle (Liang Pi) and Chinese Hamburger (Rou Jia Mo). Besides, all the international students are welcome to participate in the food festival.

    I sincerely hope that my invitation can draw your attention.

    Sincerely yours,

    Li Ming

    【審題】

    圖表類型:動態圖

    圖表內容

    (1)整體變化:2018-2020年我國總體和農村的快遞業務量都發生了變化。

    (2)最大變化:我國總體快遞業務量變化最大。

    (3)原因分析:1)電子商務發展。2)賣家在快速交貨方面加大了投資。

    (4)預測:這一趨勢仍將繼續。

    【參考范文】

    There is no denying that the chart shows the changes in the business volume of express delivery in China from 2018 to 2020. During these years, the business volumes of overall express delivery and rural express delivery have gone through some changes. Especially, the volume of overall express delivery has experienced the greatest change, jumping from 51 billion to 83 billion during this time. Obviously, the tendency should be given more consideration.

    Many factors contribute to the tendency reflected in this chart, but in my view, the following two may take the lead. For one thing, with the development of China’s economy, especially that of the e-commerce industry, online shopping has become one of the most important daily activities of Chinese residents. For another, the increasing investment by sellers on fast delivery of goods is the key factor driving the growth of the express delivery market.

    According to the analysis above, it is obvious that the tendency reflected by the chart will continue for some time in the future. It is high time for us to raise our awareness in this aspect.

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